Compared with other modes of transportation, the use of belt conveyor has significant advantages for non-uniform particle size and large volume of materials. At the same time, in view of different transport angles, site use requirements, has developed a variety of different forms of belt conveyor, according to the maximum Angle, volume, length, block, turning radius, density to select the appropriate layout form. Its purpose is always to meet the requirements of continuous transportation of materials.
1 Belt conveyor commonly used in underground mining
(1) Flexible belt conveyor
In the past, the shuttle truck was used to transport minerals from the mining surface to the fixed belt conveyor, but now a new equipment — flexible belt conveyor can be used to achieve. The equipment can make multiple 90° turns through complex terrain and synchronously follow the fully mechanized mining machine to achieve continuous transport from the fully mechanized mining machine to the fixed belt conveyor.
A flexible belt conveyor is a combination of a belt conveyor and a crusher. The front part of the equipment is located below the outlet chain conveyor of a continuous mining unit. When the material falls in the front part of the flexible belt conveyor, it goes through the crusher and is conveyed to the belt conveyor part by the chain conveyor. The middle part of the equipment is a flexible belt conveyor. Conveyor belt speed up to 3.6 m/s, transport coal up to 1470 t/h, transport potassium salt up to 2 178 t/h. Flexible belt conveyors can vary in length from 38 m to 152 m and can follow miners continuously by radio control.
The tail and the fixed belt conveyor with part, can be used over the top lap and side lap. When the mining working face in the belt conveyor on both sides of the side lap.
(2) Bag conveyor
Droplet belt conveyors mounted on rails are called bag conveyors and are usually classified as enclosed belt conveyors. The difference with the general belt conveyor lies in 2 points: (1) conveyor installation form;
A cross-section of the conveyor shows that the system is propelled and supported by a special-shaped conveyor belt by a tilted stick or pulley. The advantages of closed transport lie in protecting the environment and reducing dust levels along the route. The characteristics of this system are the same as that of the pipe conveyor, which can be arranged in small Angle, dense turning path, especially in long and complex conditions.
The maximum volume of SICON conveyor can reach 440 m% or 400t/h(coal), belt speed can reach 5 m/s. With a top-mounted monorail, the minimum operating height is 2.2m and the width is 3m.
(3) Tubular belt conveyor
The main advantages of tubular belt conveyors are similar to those of bag conveyors: the closed system reduces dust escape and has more excellent spatial turning characteristics compared to classic trough belt conveyors.
① Tubular belt conveyor · Tubular belt conveyor mostly adopts long-distance ground transportation, and can also be used for underground mining. The system is capable of conveying materials in excess of 10 km with inclination angles up to 30°. The main reason for using underground tubular belt conveyors is to ensure dust-free environment and protect transportation along the roadway during long distance transportation in mines. In addition, the layout of small radius, large inclination Angle and large lifting height has better safety advantages. The longest pipe conveyor can transport materials over a distance of 16.4 km, with a height difference of 164 m. Closed pipes prevent dust from the surrounding environment and also protect materials from external interference. For example, a tubular band protects hot ash up to 90 ° C in an external -45 ° C environment. The volume of the belt conveyor can reach 5 200 t/h, with a speed of 5.2 m/s.
② Coaxial tubular belt conveyor there is a special coaxial tubular belt conveyor, originally invented in order to adjust the end of the tubular belt. The equipment uses a driving spring to drive the conveyor belt movement, the driving spring can effectively provide power for the bearing section and the return section, at the same time by the distribution of a plurality of small driving units on the conveyor belt to replace the original centralized drive form.
- Sustainable development of belt conveyor
(1) Reduce energy consumption
In order to practice the road of energy saving, emission reduction and green development, belt conveyor system to reduce energy consumption is the inevitable trend of future development.
At present, the research on reducing energy consumption of belt conveyor mainly focuses on reducing rolling friction resistance. One direction is for the traditional belt conveyor roller friction resistance, this part of the resistance accounted for about 20% of the whole machine resistance. Develop low resistance support to reduce energy consumption of existing systems. The other is to change the structure of the traditional belt conveyor, which is similar to the rope conveyor and uses the track to realize conveyor belt transportation so as to reduce the resistance of the whole machine.
(2) Reduce pollution
The environmental pollution of belt conveyor is mainly divided into dust pollution and noise pollution.
①Dust pollution is an inevitable problem of bulk transportation. Excessive dust will pollute the air, endanger workers’ health and cause serious environmental pollution. In the case of satisfying conditions, it will even cause dust explosion. In the stage of mining design and decision-making, suitable belt conveyor type should be selected to reduce the number of transport and dust reduction by spraying water.
② Noise pollution is similar to dust pollution, material in the process of transport will produce a great noise, in the normal process of transport rod and roller noise can not be completely avoided. At present, some special structural designs for rolling and supporting rod manufacturing and application studies of different materials show that the noise can be reduced by 12 dB, which is about 1/7.
(3) Automation and intelligence
According to the National Development and Reform Commission’s goal of “all kinds of coal mines basically realize intelligence by 2035” and the actual demand of coal mine and tunnel safety production, automation and intelligence are the key factors. In the future, more devices will be computer-assisted, operated by a single person and controlled with greater precision. At the same time, the intelligent system can monitor the status of the whole machine to provide auxiliary judgment for equipment maintenance, reduce maintenance frequency, and provide guarantee for long-term reliable operation. In the future, automation and intelligence will develop continuously with the improvement of production efficiency and safety production capacity.
Belt conveyor design has the same design theme: bulk material transport. Under the comprehensive influence of various factors such as the kinds of materials mined, speed and environmental conditions, different types of belt conveyors have different design concepts and requirements.
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